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ISBN: 9860002517

出版日期: 2005-03-10

作者: 蘇以文

裝訂: 平裝.單色印刷.96頁.



  隱喻是人類概念系統的一部分,許多我們思考的方式,我們所經驗的事物都是隱喻的某一種表徵;我們思考以及了解這個世界的方式,其實在某個層面上受到了限制,只是我們往往無所覺。本課程以日常生活的語言現象為基礎,藉由探索「隱喻」的本質與應用,帶領讀者一探人類思維模式的靈活運用,探索思想認知之奧秘,以及文化對人類思維模式的影響。 課程簡介






  (一)本課程開授目的:本計畫擬透過開設通識課程的方式,以跨學科思考的方式帶領學生研討此經典之內容。本計畫擬由日常生活的語言現象為基礎,逐步帶領學生,進入人類思維模式及認知科學的世界。在1980所出版的Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff and Johnson為認知語言學的研究奠定了里程碑。我們希望藉此能使學生瞭解隱喻及思想的本質,及瞭解其在語言學及認知科學其他研究領域中的角色;使學生能瞭解語言及思想的譬喻性,及文化對人類思維模式的影響及互動關係。


  1. 講授內容摘要

  2. 閱讀作業及思考問題

  3. 參考讀物

  4. 參考英語語料


  Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


  第一講 隱喻與思維的本質

  Ch1 Concepts We Live By

  Ch2 The Systematicity of Metaphorical Concepts

  Ch3 Metaphorical Systematicity: Highlighting and Hiding

  第二講 概念的方位性與文化思維

  Ch4 Orientational Metaphors

  Ch5 Metaphor and Cultural Coherence

  第三講 對實體的感知與思維

  Ch6  Ontological Metaphors

  Ch7  Personification

  Ch8  Metonymy

  第四講 概念系統的一致性

  Ch9  Challenges to Metaphorical Coherence

  Ch10  Some Further Examples

  Ch11  The Partial Nature of Metaphorical Structuring

  第五講 結構性隱喻、譬喻性思維、一般性思維及其經驗基礎

  Ch12 How Is Our Conceptual System Grounded?

  Ch13 The Grounding of Structural Metaphors

  Ch14 Causation: Partly Emergent and Partly Metaphorical

  第六講 概念性隱喻、思維建構及經驗整體性

  Ch15 The Coherent Structuring of Experience

  Ch16 Metaphorical Coherence

  Ch17 Complex Coherence across Metaphors

  第七講 概念結構及基礎理論

  Ch18 Some Consequences for Theories of Conceptual Structure

  第八講 隱喻、思維與意義

  Ch19 Definition and Understanding

  Ch20 How Metaphor Can Give Meaning to Form

  Ch21 New Meaning

  第九講 意義與真實

  Ch22 The Creation of Similarity

  Ch23 Metaphor, Truth, and Action

  Ch24 Truth

  第十講 語言:客觀還是主觀?

  Ch25 The Myths of Objectivism and Subjectivism

  Ch26 The Myth of Objectivism in Western Philosophy and Linguistics

  Ch27 How Metaphor Reveals the Limitations of the Myth of Objectivism

  Ch28 Some Inadequacies of the Myth of Subjectivism

  第十一講 結語:語言與思維的經驗基礎

  Ch29 The Experientialist Alternative: Giving New Meaning to the Old Myths

  Ch30 Understanding

  八  基本參考書

  Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  九  課外閱讀參考書目

  .Ahrens, Kathleen. 2001. When love is not digested: Underlying reasons for source to target domain pairing in the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In the Proceedings of the First Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Cheng-Chi University, Taiwan.

  .Black, Max. 1962. Models and Metaphors. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

  .Bolinger, Dwight. 1977. Meaning and Form. London: Longman.

  .Borkin, Ann. 1985. Problems in Form and Function. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

  .Bybee, Joan. 1985. Morphology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  .Cienki, Alan (1999). Metaphors and cultural models as profiles and bases. In Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr., and Gerard J. Steen (eds.), Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics: Selected Papers from the Fifth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, 189-203. Amsterdam/Philadelphia.

  .Cooper, William E., and John Robert Ross. 1975. World order. In Robin E. Grossman, L. James San, and Timothy J. Vance, (eds.), Functionalism. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

  .Dahl, Oyvind. 1995. When the future comes from behind: Malagasy and other time concepts and some consequences for communication. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 19:2, 197-210.

  .Davidson, Donald. 1978. What metaphors mean. Critical Inquiry 5:1, 31-47.

  .Frege, Gottlob. 1966. On Sense and Reference. In P. Geach and M. Black, (eds.), Translation from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford: Balckwell.

  .Gallagher, Shaun. 1995. Body schema and intentionality. In Jose Bermedez, Noami Eilan, Anthony Marcel (eds.), The Body and the Self, 225-244. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  .Grice, H. P. 1957. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66: 377-88.

  .Hill, Clifford A. 1982. Up/down, front/back, left/right: A constrastive study of Hausa and English In J. Weissenbord and W. Klein (eds.), Here and There: Cross-linguistic Studies on Deixis and Demonstration, 13-42. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  .Jackendoff, Ray S. 1983. Semantics and Cognition-Chapter 1: Semantic Structure and Conceptual Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT press, 3-22.

  .──. 1990. Semantic Structures-Chapter 1: Overview of Conceptual Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 7-41.

  .Johnson, Mark. 1987. The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  .Klein, Harriet. 1987. The future precedes the past: Time in Toba In Word, vol. 38:3.

  .Koffka, Kurt. 1935. Principles of Gestalt Psychology. London: Lund Humphries.

  .Kovecses, Zoltan. 1986. Metaphors of Anger, Pride, and Love. A Lexical Approach to the Structure of Concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  .──. 1990. Emotion Concepts. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

  .Lakoff, George. 1972. Linguistics and Natural Logic. In Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman, (eds.), Semantics of Natural Language. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

  .──. 1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

  .──. 1990. The Invariance Hypothesis: Is Abstract Reason Based on Image-Schemase Cognitive Linguistics 1:1, 39-74.

  .──. 1993. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In A. Ortony, (ed.), Metaphor and Thought. 2nd. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  .──. 1996. Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don’t. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  .Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1981. The metaphorical structure of the human conceptual system. In D.A. Norman, (ed.), Perspectives on Cognitive Science, 193-206. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

  .Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.

  .Lakoff, George and Mark Turner. 1989. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphors. Chicago: Chicago Press.

  .Lakoff, George, and Rafael Nueez. 2000. Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. New York: Basic Books.

  .Montague, Richard. 1974. Formal Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  .Richards, I. A. 1936. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. London: Oxford University Press.

  .Rosch, Eleanor. 1977. Human categorization. In N. Warren, (ed.), Advances in Cross-cultural Psychology. New York: Academic Press.

  .Su, Lily I-wen. 1999a. To “run” a marriage: Conceptualization of marriage in current Chinese. AISB’99 Workshop on Metaphor, Artificial Intelligence & Cognition. Edinburgh University.

  .──. 1999b. Thought as food: Conceptual metaphors  in Chinese. Working Papers in Linguistic, Vol. 2 (Dec 1999), 199-224. National Taiwan University.

  .──.  1999c. Metaphorical extension and lexical meaning. The 13th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation. Taipei.

  .──. 2002a. What can metaphor tell us about culture?” Language and Linguistics 3(3): 589-614, Taipei: Academia Sinica.

  .── . 2002b. What can metaphor tell us about conceptuali- zation and culture? Proceedings of the Symposium on Selected NSC Projects on General Linguistics 1998- 2000. National Taiwan University, Taipei.

  .Turner, Mark. 1987. Death Is the Mother of Beauty: Mind, Metaphor, Criticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  .──. 1996. The Literary Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

  .Vosniadou, Stella. and Andrew. Ortony. 1989. Similarity and analogical reasoning: A synthesis. In Stella Vosniadon and Andrew Ortony, (eds.), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  .Yu, Ning. 2001. What does our face mean to use Pragmatics & Cognition 9:1, 1–36.

  .Yu, Ning. 2002. Body and emotion: Body parts in Chinese expression of emotion. In Nick Enfield and Anna Wierzbicka (eds.) The Body in Description of Emotion: Cross-Linguistic Studies, special issue of Pragmatics and Cognition 10(1/2): 341–367




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